AQUATIC PLANTS

The magical pools in the Aquatic Plants Gallery simulate the flow of a river winding through the tropics. The gallery features carnivorous pitcher plants, warm-growing orchids, and brightly painted Heliconia and Hibiscus. Giant taro leaves line the pond and the flowers of hundreds of bromeliads emerge from their water-filled buckets. A sculpture of a Victoria amazonica water lily hangs suspended in the air. The Victoria amazonica, lotus plants, and colorful water lilies grow in the ponds during the summers when water conditions are just right.

You can visit all the galleries: Potted Plants | Lowland Tropics | Highland Tropics | Aquatic Plants

Click images to enlarge.

Ascocenda
Family Name: Orchidaceae

Ascocenda is a man-made hybrid orchid genus resulting from a cross between Ascocentrum and Vanda. The hybrids often combine the large flower size of the Vanda parents with the color and compactness of the Ascocentrum parents. Ascocenda orchids prefer warm temperatures and bright light.

Ascocendas have monopodial growth habit, which means they grow vertically and reach incredible heights. Their height is compounded when a new stem forms from the end of a spent flower spike, and leaves and flowers are then produced along the new stem. Succulent leaves store the nutrients and moisture required for the new growth.

Coelogyne
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: India, Southeast Asia, Philippines, and Indonesia

The orchid genus Coelogyne is comprised of about 200 species. A number are on display in the Potted Plants Gallery. Most of the species are relatively easy to grow and produce long-lasting, fragrant flowers, and they can go weeks in their winter dormant season without water. They often have elaborately marked lips to attract pollinators, which include bees, wasps, and beetles.

Dendrochilum
Common Name: Necklace Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Southeast Asia

Dendrochilum is a genus of about 150 species of orchids. The genus is sometimes known as the necklace orchids because of their pendant-like inflorescences, or clusters of flowers. Some visitors find the distinct fragrance of the miniature, star-shaped flowers pleasant, others a bit strong and musty. Dendrochilum species grow at higher elevations in the humid rainforests throughout Southeast Asia including New Guinea, Borneo, and Java.

Gossypium hirsutum
Common Name: Mexican Cotton, Upland Cotton
Family Name: Malvaceae
Native to: Central America

Gossypium hirsutum is the most widely cultivated species of cotton in the United States.  After the flowers wither they leave pods which are called cotton bolls. Moist fibers grow inside the boll and push out from the newly formed seeds. As the boll ripens, it turns brown. The fibers continue to expand under the warm sun. The boll then splits and exposes the cotton.

Guzmania conifera
Family Name: Bromeliaceae
Native to: Ecuador and Peru

Guzmanias have spectacular flowers that seemingly last forever. With a few exceptions, bromeliads are monocarpic plants. This means that once they are done flowering, the plant dies. Fortunately, the flowers usually last months and many bromeliads produce offsets from the parent plant, called pups. Guzmania conifera is a popular houseplant cultivated for its vibrant flowers and spineless leaves.

Hedychium coronarium
Common Name: White Ginger Lily
Family Name: Zingiberaceae
Native to: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, China, Taiwan

While commonly known as the white ginger lily, Hedychium coronarium is not a lily but is actually in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. Hedychium coronarium is native to the Eastern Himalayas where it grows from rhizomes and requires heat and humidity. The fragrant white flowers resemble butterflies and are the national flower of Cuba, where is it referred to as mariposa due to the shape of the flowers.

Hedychium gardnerianum
Common Name: Kahili Ginger, Ginger Lily
Family Name: Zingiberaceae
Native to: Himalayas of India, Nepal, and Bhutan

Hedychium gardnerianum grows to eight feet tall with long, bright green leaves clasping the tall stems. The fragrant pale yellow and red flowers are held in dense spikes above the foliage. The plant is an invasive species in certain areas. It is known as wild kahili ginger and is listed as a weed in Hawaii. It’s sticky seeds are easily spread by birds and roaming mammals, while the rhizomes crowd out seedlings of other plants by forming dense mats. Despite its vindictive tendencies in an unchecked environment, here in the Conservatory, it’s an especially striking addition to the gallery.

Heliconia
Common Name: Lobster Claws, False Bird-of-Paradise
Family Name: Zingiberales
Native to: Tropical Americas, Pacific Islands

Heliconia is a genus of flowering tropical plants with approximately 225 species. The majority of Heliconia species are native to tropical Central and South America; however, several species are found on islands in the West Pacific. Heliconias thrive in tropical conditions and habitats that have an abundance of water, sunlight, and rich soil. The inflorescence, or cluster of flowers, are quite distinctive and range in colorful hues of red, orange, yellow, and green. The inflorescence consists of brightly colored, waxy bracts (specialized leaves at the base of flowers) arranged alternately on the stem that encloses and protect small flowers.

Heliconias support a diversity of ecological relationships with various organisms. Hummingbirds are the principle pollination of Heliconias in the Americas. The flowers produce an abundance of nectar and the color, shape, and curve of the flowers are adapted to specific hummingbird species. Several species of Heliconia open their flowers at night to attract nectar-eating bats for pollination. Additionally, multiple species of bats use the leaves and foliage to construct habitats and shelters. Heliconia species with upright bracts are known to collect rainwater and support a community of minute, aquatic fauna. Interestingly, the name Heliconia is derived from Mount Helicon, a mountain in southern Greece that is known in Greek mythology to be the home of the Muses.

Hibiscus
Family Name: Malvaceae
Native to: Temperate, Subtropical, and Tropical Regions

The Hibiscus captures the magic of the tropics by combining the lush, deep greens of the foliage and the bright colors of the flowers. The plant serves many purposes in different cultures.  The red Hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian women. A single flower, tucked behind the ear, is used to indicate the wearer’s availability for marriage. Dried hibiscus is edible, and is a delicacy in Mexico. The tea made from hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess, and flavor. Certain species are also beginning to be used more widely as a natural source of food coloring, replacing synthetic dyes.

Many of the 300 species have a classic structure with five overlapping petals arranged in a trumpet-like whorl. A long reproductive column protrudes from the center of the petals. The column is covered with stamens, the part of the flower that produces pollen. At the tip of the column are stigmas, where pollen lands and starts the fertilization process.

Medinilla magnifica
Common Name: Pink Lantern
Family Name: Melastomataceae
Native to: Phillipines

In every stage of its blooming cycle, this Medinilla magnifica is true to its name. The magnificent flower clusters, called panicles, begin as a dewdrop-shaped pendant. Protecting the pendant are pink bracts, which look like petals but are actually modified leaves. As they unfold, the bracts curl upwards and reveal clusters of tiny pink and purple flowers. The flowers leave behind berry-like pods which remain on the plant for weeks.

Musa
Common Name: Banana
Family Name: Musaceae
Native to: Southeast Asia and Australia

In horticulture, parthenocarpy (which literally means “virgin fruit”) is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules. The fruit is therefore seedless. Seedlessness is seen as a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds such as watermelon, clementines, grapes, and grapefruit. Bananas are another example of parthenocarpy, which explains how the Conservatory’s plantains and banana plants can bear fruit without a pollinator being present. The common banana is triploid, meaning it has three sets of chromosomes. Triploids cannot produce a functional seed, but they still develop good fruit through parthenocarpy. After the stalk has flowered and borne fruit, it dies.

So how does a banana plant reproduce? There are side shoots or suckers at the base of the main stalk, which can be removed and replanted.  Banana flowers are protected by bracts. The bracts fold away one-by-one and reveal hundreds of flowers. Female flowers appear first and develop into hands of fruit. The male flowers emerge last and do not become fruit. In Southeast Asia the male flowers are boiled and eaten as a vegetable. Bananas are cultivated in 135 tropical and subtropical countries.

Nepenthes bicalcarata
Common Name: Fanged Pitcher Plant
Family Name: Nepenthaceae
Native to: Borneo

The fanged pitcher plant is a myrmecophyte noted for its mutualistic association with a species of ant, Camponotus schmitzi. Myrmecophytes are known as “ant-plant”. These plants possess adaptations that provide ants with food or shelter. In exchange, ants aid the plant in pollination, seed dispersal, defense, or gathering of essential nutrients. What makes the N. bicalcarata so unique is that the fluid in the pitcher contains far less acidic enzymes than other Nepenthes species. This is what allows the ants to survive inside the pitcher. Ants travel down the pitcher walls, drag the other drowned insects back up, and then rest the insect on the lip where it is devoured. While eating and swimming, the ants defecate in the pitcher and fertilize the plant. 

The two fangs that give N. bicalcarata its name are unique to this species and bear some of the largest nectaries in the plant kingdom. The purpose of these structures has long been debated among botanists. They have been thought to deter mammals from stealing the contents of the pitchers, though the more intelligent mammals like monkeys have been observed tearing open the side of the pitcher. Other botanists suggest that the fangs likely serve to lure insects into a precarious position over the pitcher’s mouth, where they may lose their footing and fall into the pitcher’s fluid, eventually drowning and becoming prey to the ants.  

Nymphaea
Common Name: Water Lily
Family Name: Nymphaeaceae
Native to: Cosmopolitan Distribution

Water “lilies” are not related to true lilies nor are they related to the lotus.  The plant’s name Nymphaea comes from the Greek word for “nymph”, which are supernatural feminine beings associated with springs.  The blue water lilies found in the Conservatory are striking because of the contrast of the blue sepals and petals and the yellow stamen which contain the pollen.  Some Nymphaea need tropical climates and others can be grown in a Bay Area backyard. The leaves of hardy water lilies, which can be grown in non-tropical areas, have smooth edges. The leaves of water lilies found in tropical regions, like the Amazon, have scalloped edges.

Oncidium
Common Name: Dancing Lady Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Cental and South America

Some species of Oncidium have long bouncing stems with abundant flowers that flutter in the breeze and look like male bees. Pollination occurs when actual angry male bees attack the flowers thinking they are a competitor. The common name, dancing lady orchid, refers to the elaborate lip that looks like a dress with a full skirt. The petals and sepals look like the arms and head of a tiny lady. The Greek word “onkos” means pad or mass and refers to the fleshy, warty callus on the lip of many species. Some calluses are known to provide oil droplets, which are consumed mainly by bees.

Paphiopedilum
Common Name: Lady Slipper Orchid, Venus Slipper
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Southeast Asia, India, China, New Guinea, Solomon and Bismark Islands

Most Paphiopedilums are lithophytes (plants that grow on rocks) found mostly on limestone cliffs or in humus enriched forest floors. Virtually all species require shade of a forest canopy. Most species temporarily trap their pollinator in their pouch-like lip and none are known to offer any reward. Insects are lured in by the smell of nectar. Numerous species attract flies or bees with odors that range from foul to pleasant depending on the type of pollinator.

Phragmipedium
Common Name: South American Slipper Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Mexico to South America

Plants in the genus Phragmipedium are new world lady slipper orchids, named after their shoe shaped pouches. The pouch is a modified petal, also called a lip. The pouch traps insects, which are forced to escape through a backdoor exit, depositing pollen as they squeeze out, thus pollinating the flower. A distinct trait of “Phrags” is that their flowers bloom sequentially, one after another. Each bloom lasts about two weeks; meanwhile, another bud is developing. The entire flowering season can last from six to eleven months. Depending on the species, the colors can range from green, to a soft mahogany-pink, to a dazzling orange-red.

Stanhopea
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Central and South America

This plant is noteworthy because its complex and usually fragrant flowers are generally spectacular and short-lived. Their pendant inflorescences are noted for flowering out of the bottom of the containers in which they grow. Most Stanhopea flowers last three days or less.

Stanhopea orchids have co-evolved with euglossine bees, and rely on the bees for mutualistic pollination. Male euglossine bees visit the fragrant Stanhopea flowers to collect odiferous compounds that they store in their hind legs and later use in courtship display. In the process of scraping the flowers for the fragrance, the pollen sacs (pollinia) get brushed on the backs of the bees who inadvertently deposit the pollinia on the next flower, thus pollination is achieved.

Stanhopea tigrina
Common Name: Tiger Stanhopea
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Mexico

Stanhopea tigrina has spectacular tiger-spotted flowers that hang down below the plant in clusters of 2-4 blooms. The flowers have distinctive purple-brown splotches on a creamy yellow background, which lead to the common name. While the flowers are short lived, they have a heavy, complex fragrance. The fragrance attracts the pollinators, male euglossine bees (Euglossini), that visit the flower to collect flower fragrance compounds that they later use in courtship display.

Stanhopea tigrina is endemic to Mexico where it grows as an epiphyte on trees. This species was once considered vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN); however, the current conservation status in unknown.

Strophanthus gratus
Common Name: Climbing Oleander
Family Name: Apocynaceae
Native to: West Africa

Despite its beautiful rose scent, the winter-blooming Strophanthus gratus is actually quite wicked. The plant is a source of ouabain, a glycoside poison that can cause heart problems. Extracts containing ouabain have long been used by Somali tribesmen and other groups to poison hunting arrows. It is rumored that a sufficiently concentrated ouabain dart can bring down a Hippopotamus, probably as the result of respiratory or cardiac arrest. Not realizing their toxicity, ancient Egyptians and Romans first used plants containing cardiac glycosides medicinally for heart ailments. Modern medicine has since developed synthetic forms of ouabain and tested it as a heart medication and for cancer therapies.

Strophanthus preussii
Common Name: Twisted Cord Flower
Family Name: Apocynaceae
Native to: Tropical West and Central Africa

Strophanthus preusii belongs to the dogbane family, Apocynaceae, and originated from the forested areas of western Africa. This species blooms most heavily from late spring to fall, with clusters of small pale pink, trumpet-shaped flowers with a rusty red base. It is nicknamed the twisted cord flower or spider tresses for the distinctive maroon tail that hangs from each of the five petals of each flower.

There are many recorded uses of S. preusii in several African countries. In southern Nigeria, the stem of the plant is used to construct hunting bows. In the DR Congo, young leaves are crushed and applied to sores and wounds to promote healing. In the Central African Republic the fibers are used to craft fishing lines, nets, and ropes. In Gabon, the leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. In Liberia and Congo, the latex and seeds are used in poison arrow mixtures, as they contain cardiac glycosides that in small dosages can treat heart arrhythmia, but extremely toxic in larger amounts.

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Whether you’re a native San Franciscan, a visitor from another side of the world, or a classroom of budding botanists, the Conservatory of Flowers offers an intimate up-close experience with rare and endangered plants unlike any other. Come see what treasures await you!

Golden Gate Park | 100 John F. Kennedy Drive | San Francisco, CA 94118| 415-831-2090