Cocos nucifera, most commonly known as the coconut palm, is a long lived palm that may grow up to a 100 years. The coconut palm is native to the tropical islands of the west Pacific and require hot, moist conditions to grow. Coconuts are buoyant and able to float in sea currents for long distances while remaining viable and able to germinate upon arrival. For that reason, coconut palms are often found along the coast and seaboard of tropical areas.
What is a coconut? A seed, nut, or fruit? The short answer is all three. Botanically, a coconut is a one-seeded drupe. A drupe is a fruit with a hard covering enclosing a seed (like a peach or mango). The coconut fruit has three layers: a thin, smooth outer epicarp layer that surrounds the thick, fibrous mesocarp layer, which encloses the woody endocarp layer. The endocarp houses the seed. Usually, the coconuts we see in stores have the two outer layers removed, with only the endocarp and seed remaining. Also, while the coconut is not a true nut, one loose definition of a nut is a one-seeded fruit, and by that definition we could consider the coconut a nut.
Coconut palms are one of the most widely grown and iconic palms in the world. The coconut palm has a wide variety of uses and, in some cases, coconuts are considered survival food. Coconut water is a good source of iron, calcium, phosphorous, proteins, and vitamins. Coconut meat has a large diversity of food uses, including coconut oil. The coir can be used as a fiber to make rope, floor mats, mattress filling, and fish nets. The leaves are traditionally used to make baskets and roof thatching, while the trunk is used to make furniture, houses, and even musical instruments. Additionally, an alcoholic drink known as palm wine or Toddy is made from the sap of the coconut palm.