POTTED PLANTS

The Potted Plants Gallery pays homage to the Conservatory’s late 1800’s Victorian roots when plant collectors stored their exotic tropical treasures in opulent glass greenhouses to protect them from cold European climates. Rare flowering plants are potted in an incredible assortment of decorative urns and containers from all over the world including copper containers from India, Javanese palm pots, ceramic pots from Burkina Faso and a historic urn from San Francisco’s 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition.

You can visit all the galleries: Potted Plants | Lowland Tropics | Highland Tropics | Aquatic Plants

Click images to enlarge.

Adenium obesum
Common Name: Desert Rose
Family Name: Apocynaceae
Native to: Yemen

This odd but beautiful plant comes from an equally odd but beautiful landscape: the island of Socotra in Yemen. One-third of the plants on Socotra are endemic and found nowhere else in the world.  Adeniums are appreciated for their colorful flowers, but also for their unusual, thick caudex. A caudex is a swollen stem base where new grow and leaves arise. Adeniums are loved by bonsai artists because it is slow growing and has sculptural branches.

Aeschynanthus chinanthus
Common Name: Thai Pink Lipstick Plant
Family Name:  Gesneriaceae

Aeschynanthus chinanthus is especially attractive because of the glossy, chartruse leaves and the pink flowers that emerge like a bubble from the pink sepals. Many species of Aeschynanthus are called lipstick plants, which comes from the appearance of the developing buds. These epiphytes grow on trees in their native habitats. They have long, trailing stems and bright flowers pollinated by birds.

Allamanda cathartica
Common Name: Golden Trumpet
Family Name: Apocynaceae
Native to: Brazil

Allamanda cathartica, as known as the golden trumpet, is cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant for its large, fragrant yellow flowers which contrast with dark green leaves. It can thrive as an annual or indoors in cooler climates. The plant has milky sap and is considered poisonous.

Amorphophallus konjac
Common Name: Devil's Tongue, Voodoo Lily
Family Name: Araceae
Native to: Tropical and Subtropical Eastern Asia

While the so-called devil’s tongue or voodoo lily is not super-sized like its famed relative, the gigantic Amorphophallus titanum, it is impressive.

This A. konjac is now unfurling and beginning to give off the signature stench of dead rats that plants in this family are known for. The stench, while off putting to humans, is a seductive lure for the beetles and flies that pollinate this plant in its native habitat — tropical and sub-tropical Eastern Asia. These plants are not carnivorous.

The smelly, raw-liver colored “beauty” has been cultivated in Asia for thousands of years. Its starchy corms are processed into both a flour and jelly. In Japanese cuisine, a gelatinous cake called konnyaku is used in dishes such as oden and is also cut into noodle-like strips. In China and other parts of Asia, it is often processed into a fruit jelly snack, but these candies prompted recalls and food warnings here in the United States after several highly publicized choking incidents among children. A. konjac is often used as a diet food, as it has no calories and is high in fiber. The Japanese have called it “a broom for the intestine.”

Lipozene is made from A. konjac. A. konjac is also used widely in cosmetic products.

Angraecum eburneum
Common Name: Comet Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Madagascar, Reunion, and the Mascarenes

The waxy white and apple-green flowers of Angraecum eburneum are pollinated by hawk moths. In the evenings, the flower releases a seductive fragrance to attract the moth, which pollinates the flower while drinking nectar from the long spur. This spur looks like a tail and is what gives Angraecums their common name of “comet orchid”. In the winter, A. eburneum sends out a flower spike with dozens of inverted flowers. The white fused sepals are on the top of the flower, and the three green petals dangle from the bottom of the flower.

Anthurium flavolineatum
Family Name: Araceae
Native to: Ecuador

Anthuriums are best characterized by the distinctive inflorescence which has two parts – a bisexual or unisexual spadix that is surrounded by a solitary spathe that resembles a leaf or large petal.

The fruits develop from the flowers on the spadix. They are berries varying in color, usually containing two seeds.  The spathe of Anthurium flavolineatum is maroon with fine vertical pin stripes. In Latin, flavolineatum means “marked with yellow lines”. The spadix has the interesting characteristic of exposing its pistils, which gives the spadix the look of a hairy caterpillar. The new leaves emerge a light brown color.

Begonia brevirimosa ssp. exotica
Common Name: Exotica Begonia
Family Name: Begoniaceae
Native to: New Guinea

One would think the plant is a cultivated hybrid, but this is a naturally-occurring species. The exotica Begonia is a shrub-type with large, metallic-green leaves. The pink variegation is especially vibrant on mature leaves. Begonias are monoecious, with male and female flowers occurring separately on the same plant. In most species, the fruit is a winged capsule containing numerous tiny seeds.

Bouvardia ternifolia
Common Name: Firecracker Bush, Hummingbird Flower
Family Name: Rubiaceae
Native to: Mexico, Honduras, and southwestern United States

Bouvardia ternifolia blooms continuously in the Conservatory. Clusters of trumpet-shaped flowers burst from the tips of its leafy branches. The spectacular red corolla (unit of petals) attracts, and provides nectar for hummingbirds. The Spanish name trompetilla means “little trumpet” and refers to the corolla’s shape.

Brassolaeliocattleya
Family Name: Orchidaceae

These stunning spotted and fragrant flowers exemplify the lengths orchid enthusiasts will go to create the most desirable combinations of color, petal shape, fragrance, and durability. Cattleyas can be crossbred with closely related orchids to create hybrids. Hybrid plants combine the best qualities of both parents, and some can survive poor growing conditions or neglect.

Bulbophyllum Elizabeth Ann ‘Buckleberry’
Family Name: Orchidaceae

This is a hybrid between Bulbophyllum longissimum and Bulbophyllum rothschildianum. Up to a dozen flowers make up an inflorescence which hangs from a long stem. Each flower includes two sepals that have fused together and look like a tail, an erect hairy sepal on the top of the flower, two small petals on either side of the column, which holds the orchid’s reproductive parts, and a pink lip that serves as a landing pad for the orchid’s pollinator.

Bulbophyllum purpureorachis
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Congo, Cameroon, Gabon, Ivory Coast, and Zaire

Bulbophyllym purpureorachis produces a purple twisting, paddle-shaped inflorescence. The flower buds first appear as bumps up the center of both sides of the “paddle”. When the buds open, they reveal small flowers that resemble beetles.

Cattleya
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Tropical Central and South America

Cattleya are a premier flower in the floral industry and are used by orchid enthusiasts to create hybrids (often with Laelia orchids) and prize plants. Their large, showy flowers often have a pleasant sweet or citrusy fragrance. An interesting adaptation of Cattleya orchids is that some have a pseudobulb on every leaf to store water and nutrients, which are used in the latent season. In the wet season new leaves grow twice as fast. Many species grow in the trees so they don’t get water from the soil and instead depend on humid air.

Cephalotus follicularis
Common Name: Australian pitcher plant
Family Name: Cephalotaceae
Native to: Southwest Australia

Cephalotus follicularis is the only species in the genus. Though they share the common name of “pitcher plant”, they are not in the same family as the Nepenthes or Sarracena. Cephalotus pitchers are green but turn dark red with high light levels. The pitfall trap works in the same way as other pitcher plants. The spiked peristome, or lip, allows for insects to enter but not exit.

The lid over the entrance does not close, it simply acts as an umbrella to keep rain water out. The rain water would hinder the plant’s ability to digest trapped insects by diluting the digestive enzymes in the pitcher. The plants are found in moist peaty soil along creeks and in swamps. Over-collecting and habitat destruction has resulted in Cephalotus being classified as vulnerable species.

Clerodendrum thomsoniae
Common Name: Bleeding Heart Vine
Family Name: Lamiaceae
Native to: Tropical West Africa

The Conservatory’s bleeding heart vine boasts hundreds of flowers. The red petals burst out of white, pillowy sepals. The appearance may be likened to a line of dangling hearts, each emerging from the other. The plant can be grown in the Bay Area in moist, well-drained soil.

Clerodendrum ugandense
Common Name: Blue Butterfly Bush
Family Name: Lamiaceae
Native to: Africa

This plant’s blue flower seems to dance in the air and vaguely resembles a butterfly because of the bilaterally symmetrical petals and protruding stamens. It is usually grown as a bush, but at the Conservatory it is trained to vine on the arbor in the Potted Plants Gallery.

Clusia colombiana
Family Name: Clusiaceae
Native to: Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia

Clusia colombiana is often mistaken for the strangler fig, as it has similar tendencies to develop epiphytical on other trees. Hundreds of ariel roots grow downward towards the soil and the water it holds.

This plant exhibits a very interesting photosynthetic method which is only usually found in the succulent plant family Crassulaceae. To conserve moisture, the Clusia’s stomata (leaf pores) open at night to absorb CO2 and close during the day to prevent the escape of moisture. This process aids greatly in nutrient acquisition for an epiphytic plant such as the Clusia.

Cocos nucifera
Common Name: Coconut Palm
Family Name: Arecaceae
Native to: Pacific Islands

Cocos nucifera, most commonly known as the coconut palm, is a long lived palm that may grow up to a 100 years.  The coconut palm is native to the tropical islands of the west Pacific and require hot, moist conditions to grow. Coconuts are buoyant and able to float in sea currents for long distances while remaining viable and able to germinate upon arrival. For that reason, coconut palms are often found along the coast and seaboard of tropical areas.

What is a coconut? A seed, nut, or fruit? The short answer is all three. Botanically, a coconut is a one-seeded drupe. A drupe is a fruit with a hard covering enclosing a seed (like a peach or mango). The coconut fruit has three layers: a thin, smooth outer epicarp layer that surrounds the thick, fibrous mesocarp layer, which encloses the woody endocarp layer. The endocarp houses the seed. Usually, the coconuts we see in stores have the two outer layers removed, with only the endocarp and seed remaining. Also, while the coconut is not a true nut, one loose definition of a nut is a one-seeded fruit, and by that definition we could consider the coconut a nut.

Coconut palms are one of the most widely grown and iconic palms in the world. The coconut palm has a wide variety of uses and, in some cases, coconuts are considered survival food. Coconut water is a good source of iron, calcium, phosphorous, proteins, and vitamins. Coconut meat has a large diversity of food uses, including coconut oil. The coir can be used as a fiber to make rope, floor mats, mattress filling, and fish nets. The leaves are traditionally used to make baskets and roof thatching, while the trunk is used to make furniture, houses, and even musical instruments. Additionally, an alcoholic drink known as palm wine or Toddy is made from the sap of the coconut palm.

Coelogyne
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: India, Southeast Asia, Philippines, and Indonesia

The orchid genus Coelogyne is comprised of about 200 species. A number are on display in the Potted Plants Gallery. Most of the species are relatively easy to grow and produce long-lasting, fragrant flowers, and they can go weeks in their winter dormant season without water. They often have elaborately marked lips to attract pollinators, which include bees, wasps, and beetles.

Cymbidium
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Tropical and Subtropical Asia and Northern Australia

Cymbidiums are noteworthy because although there are approximately only 44 species, thousands of hybrids exist. Many of the showier hybrids, like this burgundy and yellow variety, have large striped petals and sepals and a ruffled lip of a contrasting color. Cymbidiums are popular in the florist trade for corsages and floral design. Cut flowers last for weeks. They are widely grown in Bay Area gardens and bloom in the winter.

Dendrophylax funalis
Common Name: Corded Ghost Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Jamaica

Dendrophylax funalis is a unique leafless orchid that is endemic to Jamaica. The genus epithet is derived from the Greek roots for tree (dendro) and guard (phylax) and is likely a reference to the growth habit. Orchids in this genus are epiphytic and cling to trees for support, often growing as a densely clustered, leafless root mass. The sophisticated roots carry out photosynthesis and absorb essential water and nutrients. The fragrant flowers bloom in winter and have light green sepals, a white lip, and a prominent green nectar spur.

Dioscorea mexicana
Common Name: Tortoise Plant
Family Name: Dioscoreaceae
Native to: Mexico, Panama, El Salvador

Dioscorea mexicana is a member of the Dioscorea genus which is composed of approximately 600 species, including several species of yams. D. mexicana’s native range spans from Veracruz, through Mexico and down to Panama. D. mexicana gets its name from the caudex which resembles a tortoise shell with polygonal plates that are separated by deep fissures. The caudex is a modified stem that stores water and nutrients that help the plant adapt to dry conditions. Vigorous vines emerge from the top of the caudex and bear heart shaped leaves.

D. mexicana is dioecious, meaning individual plants are either male or female. D. mexicana plays an important medicinal role. The plant contains diosgenin, a steroid that is a precursor for the synthesis of hormones, including progesterone and cortisone. Traditionally, D. mexicana and other plants of this genus were used by natives as a natural birth control and as an ailment for sore joints. In the mid-1950s a chemist, Russell Marker, developed the synthesis process of progesterone from the naturally produced diosgenin in D. mexicana. This discovery lead to the affordable production of birth control.

Euphorbia lactea ‘variegata’
Common Name: White Ghost, Dragon Bones
Family Name: Euphorbiaceae
Native to: India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand

Euphorbia lactea ‘White Ghost’ is a unique cultivar of Euphorbia lactea. Aptly named, the white ghost Euphorbia is almost totally white or grey in a color and lacks chlorophyll bearing tissue necessary to produce green stems. Euphorbia lactea can reach a height of 15 feet tall and the triangular stems grow in a dense candelabra form. While normally leafless, tiny leaves emerge at the growing tips in early summer, but are quickly dropped. Sharp, paired black spines grow along the stem margins. All parts of the plant are poisonous; the latex, white sap that exudes from abrasions, is an irritant to eyes and skin. The genus name, Euphorbia, pays homage to Euphorbus (52 BC- 23 AD), a Greek physician.

Ficus deltoidea
Common Name: Mistletoe Fig
Family Name: Moraceae
Native to: Southeast Asia

The mistletoe fig is a slow growing tree native to the rainforests of Southeast Asia, widely naturalized in other parts of the world, and prominent in Malaysia for its medicinal properties. It is distinctive for its slender silver trunk, gray-green foliage that differs in shape depending on its sex (larger and rounder for females, smaller and oblong for males), and long aerial roots that hang down in tendrils.

Ficus deltoidea’s nickname “mistletoe fig” comes from its small orange and red fruits, which resembles mistletoe berries. It is the only ficus species that will grow fruit indoors.  F. deltoidea is known as Mas Cotek in Malaysia, and is recognized in both traditional and worldwide for its healing and health benefits. Ongoing scientific research by various institutions including the Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI) shows that the plant possesses compounds that helps lower glucose levels in diabetic patients, works as an antioxidant, and maintains healthy blood circulation. Traditionally, Mas Cotek has been used for strengthening the uterus, regulating blood pressure and nervous system, reducing fatigue, and enhancing libido.

Gossypium barbadense
Common Name: Egyptian cotton, Pima cotton
Family Name: Malvaceae
Native to: South America

Gossypium hirsutum is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States. After the flowers wither they leave pods which are called cotton bolls. Moist fibers grow inside the boll and push out from the newly formed seeds. As the boll ripens, it turns brown. The fibers continue to expand under the warm sun. The boll then splits and exposes the cotton. Cotton plants have a variety of other uses. Seeds yield a semi-drying and edible oil, used in shortening, margarine, salad and cooking oils, and for protective coverings.

Cottonseed meal is protein rich and is fed to livestock. Archeological evidence from Mexico shows the cultivation of this species as long ago as 3,500 BC. After a flower withers it leaves a pod which is called a cotton “boll”.  The boll is actually a fruit that contains small seeds surrounded by white fibers.  As the boll ripens, it turns brown. The fibers expand, the boll splits, and cotton is exposed. The fiber is stripped from the seed by ginning and the lint is then processed into cotton.  Cotton plants have a variety of other uses. Seeds yield a semi-drying and edible oil used in shortening, margarine, salad and cooking oils, and for protective coverings. Cottonseed meal is protein rich and is fed to livestock.

Heliamphora
Common Name: Sun Pitchers
Family Name: Sarraceniaceae
Native to: Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil

Heliamphora is a genus of approximately 23 carnivorous plant species. Plants of this genus are endemic to Venezuela, Guyana, and Brazil. Most Heliamphora species are found growing on the Tepui mountains of the Guiana Highlands. The Tepuis are remote table-top mountains that rise out of the tropical landscape below to heights of 10,000 feet with sheer, vertical cliff faces. Conditions are extreme on the top of Tepui mountains: frequent and torrential downpours are accompanied with high winds and lighting, temperatures can dip to near freezing, and vegetation is sparse due to the limited and nutrient poor soil. Plants of the Heliamphora genus have evolved and adapted to the harsh conditions found on these plateaus.

The pitchers of Heliamphora are modified leaves that act as sophisticated traps. The bell-shaped pitchers arise from rhizomes anchored by the roots. A small lid, known as a nectar spoon, sits at the top of the pitchers and secretes nectar that lures insects into the top of the pitcher where fine, downward hair force the insect further down and prevent escape. Eventually the insect falls down into a pool of rainwater at the base of the pitcher, where it drowns and is dissolved by a community of bacteria living in the pitcher. Heliamphora gets its name from the Greek roots helos (marsh) and amphoreo (vessel or pitcher). Interestingly, the common name for the genus, sun pitcher, is derived from the misinterpretation of helos for the similarly spelled root helio (sun), hence the mistaken identity.

Hibiscus
Family Name: Malvaceae
Native to: Temperate, Subtropical, and Tropical Regions

The Hibiscus captures the magic of the tropics by combining the lush, deep greens of the foliage and the bright colors of the flowers. The plant serves many purposes in different cultures.  The red Hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian women. A single flower, tucked behind the ear, is used to indicate the wearer’s availability for marriage. Dried hibiscus is edible, and is a delicacy in Mexico. The tea made from hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess, and flavor. Certain species are also beginning to be used more widely as a natural source of food coloring, replacing synthetic dyes. Many of the 300 species have a classic structure with five overlapping petals arranged in a trumpet-like whorl. A long reproductive column protrudes from the center of the petals. The column is covered with stamens, the “male” part of the flower that produces pollen. At the tip of the column are five spots, or stigmas, which are the “female” part and act as the receivers of the pollen.

Hoya
Common Name: Wax Flower
Family Name: Apocynaceae
Native to: Tropical Asia and Australia

Most Hoyas are vines that grow epiphytically on trees. They have succulent leaves and star-shaped, waxy flowers that range from white to pink. Many species are sweetly scented and produce abundant nectar that attracts flies and ants. The flowers appear in umbellate clusters. An “umbel” is an inflorescence which consists of a number of short flower stalks which spread from a common point, somewhat like umbrella ribs.

Huernia zebrina
Common Name: Life Saver Plant
Family Name: Apocynaceae
Native to: South Africa

Yellow star-shaped flowers with copper zebra stripes have dark red rims, hence the common name “life saver plant”. This low-growing succulent has 4-sided stems edged with teeth. To pollinate, the flowers attract flies by emitting a scent similar to that of carrion (rotting meat). Huernia are in the Apocynaceae family along with the genus Stapelia.

Ixora coccinea
Common Name: Scarlet Jungle Flame, Flame of the Woods
Family Name: Rubiaceae
Native to: India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia

Ixora coccinea, commonly known as scarlet jungle flame, is native to Southeast Asia, India, and Sri Lanka, but is widely grown in tropical areas as a popular ornamental shrub. Ixora coccinea is a dense multi-branching evergreen shrub that is notable for its brightly colored blooms. The scarlet, tubular flowers grow in dense rounded clusters and can bloom year-round in the right conditions. Ixora coccinea is a member of the Rubiaceae family and is a showy relative of coffee. The genus name Ixora is a Portuguese translation of Isvara meaning ‘lord’ in Sanskrit and is a reference to the god Siva. The species name coccinea translates to scarlet and is a reference to the blooms. 

Kohleria
Family Name: Gesneriaceae
Native to: Central and South America

Kohleria is a genus of tropical herbs in the Gesneriaceae family. The leaves are hairy and the flowers are usually brightly colored, with attractive spotting. All Kohleria grow from scaly rhizomes. Rhizomatous plants have adapted to go through a period of dormancy. Much of the growth above the soil appears to die. The rhizomes beneath the soil, however, survive and wait for good conditions to return, at which time they will send up new growth. Kohlerias were very popular in England and Europe in the 19th Century because of their colorful and exotically patterned flowers.

Ludisia discolor
Common Name: Jewel Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: China, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Burma

This orchid is unusual in that it’s prized for its foliage rather than its flowers. The dark green leaves have fine white pinstripe markings and maroon undersides. The plant sends out upright stalks with a dozen or more small white flowers. The contrast of white against the dark foliage is striking. Ludisia discolor are terrestrials found on the rainforest floor and can tolerate extremely low light levels. Interestingly, Ludisia is a monotypic genus with only one recognized species, Ludisia bicolor.

Maxillaria tenuifolia
Common Name: Coconut Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Mexico to Costa Rica

This orchid is known for its wonderful fragrance reminiscent of coconuts and pina coladas. The flower’s rust-colored sepals surround a spotted rust and white lip. The grasslike foliage makes an attractive houseplant even when not in flower.  This genus derives its name from the Latin word maxilla which means jawbone. The lip of the flower looks like an arched tongue. The result is a blossom that slightly resembles a jawbone.

Medinilla
Family Name: Melastomataceae
Native to: Africa, Madagascar, Asia, and Pacific Islands

Medinilla is a genus of about 150 species in the family Melastomataceae. Most species are evergreen shrubs with white, pink, or orange flowers. The flowers are arranged on a panicle, a branched cluster of flowers. When pollinated, the plant bears showy berries. The leaves of many Medinilla species are arranged in a whorl or are alternating. This allows the maximum amount of sunlight to hit each leaf.

 The genus Medinilla was named in 1820 after J. de Medinilla, governor of the Mariana Islands, which are off the coast of the Philippines. There are more than 100 endemic species of Medinilla in the Philippines alone.

Medinilla alata
Common Name: Chandelier Plant
Family Name: Melastomataceae
Native to: Philippines

This striking Medinilla has translucent pale bluish-white petals over burgundy calyxes and flower stems. The flowers mature into red berries that turn a deep magenta as they age. Medinilla is a genus of about 150 species in the family Melastomataceae. The most well-known plant within the family is the princess flower, Tibouchina semidecandra. The genus Medinilla was named in 1820 after J. de Medinilla, governor of the Mariana Islands, which are off the coast of the Philippines. There are more than 100 endemic species of Medinilla in the Philippines alone.

Melastoma sanguineum
Common Name: Fox-Tongued Melastome, Red Melastome
Family Name: Melastomataceae
Native to: China, East Asia 

You may hear Melastoma sanguineum referred to by its common name the fox-tongued melastome. Melastoma sanguineum is native to China and found distributed throughout East Asia. This perennial shrub usually grows 5-10 feet tall and is commonly found in grasslands, woodland margins, and open slopes. The showy flowers are purple or violet in color. If you look closely, you may notice the stems, branches, sepals, and fruit are covered in fine hairs, these hairs are botanically referred to as trichomes. Melastoma sanguineum is considered an invasive weed in Hawaii where it spreads quickly and grows in dense thickets.

Murraya koenigii
Common Name: Curry Leaf Tree
Family Name: Rutaceae
Native to: India and Sri Lanka

The leaves of Murraya koenigii are used in India and Thailand in a similar way that Americans use bay leaves – as an aromatic in stews and soups. This plant is not used to make curry powder, which is actually a combination of many spices. M. koenigii is an attractive compact tree that can grow up to 20 feet tall. The pinnate, or feather-shaped leaf has dozens of leaflets. The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny, black berries containing a single large seed. Though the berry pulp is edible, it is not used for culinary purposes.

Musa
Common Name: Banana
Family Name: Musaceae
Native to: Southeast Asia and Australia

In horticulture, parthenocarpy (which literally means “virgin fruit”) is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules. The fruit is therefore seedless. Seedlessness is seen as a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds such as watermelon, clementines, grapes, and grapefruit. Bananas are another example of parthenocarpy, which explains how the Conservatory’s plantains and banana plants can bear fruit without a pollinator being present. The common banana is triploid, meaning it has three sets of chromosomes. Triploids cannot produce a functional seed, but they still develop good fruit through parthenocarpy. After the stalk has flowered and borne fruit, it dies.

So how does a banana plant reproduce? There are side shoots or suckers at the base of the main stalk, which can be removed and replanted.  Banana flowers are protected by bracts. The bracts fold away one-by-one and reveal hundreds of flowers. Female flowers appear first and develop into hands of fruit. The male flowers emerge last and do not become fruit. In Southeast Asia the male flowers are boiled and eaten as a vegetable. Bananas are cultivated in 135 tropical and subtropical countries.

Myrmecodia beccarii
Common Name: Ant Plant
Family Name: Rubiaceae
Native to: Queensland Australia

Myrmecodia beccarii has a symbiotic relationship with ants. The swollen stems of Myrmecodia beccarii naturally develop hollow chambers that are colonized by ants (mostly Iridomyrmex cordatus). The plant provides shelter for the ants and the ants provide nutrients to the plant with their waste. Myrmecodia beccarii is an epiphyte that grows on trees in mangroves in tropical Australia.

Nepenthes robcantleyi
Common Name: Robert Cantley’s Pitcher Plant
Family Name: Nepenthaceae
Native to: Mindanao Island, Philippines

Nepenthes robcantleyi is a unique tropical pitcher plant that is endemic (found only is a specific location) to the Mindanao island in the Philippines. The plant has been recorded in the wild at a single location in a submontane evergreen forest approximately 6,000 feet above sea level.   The pitchers of Nepenthes plants are modified leaves that attract and trap invertebrates into the pitcher where it is then digested to provide nutrients for the plant. The pitchers of N. robcantleyi are unique in that they are quite large, reaching about 12 inches in length. The pitchers have two showy, fringed wings and the peristome (collar around the opening) is dark red with ribbed edges.

N. robcantleyi has an unusual discovery story. It was first seen in the wild in 1997 by Robert Cantley who obtained permission to collect seeds. He propagated and grew the pitcher plants to maturity and displayed them at the Royal Horticultural Society Chelsea Flower Show, where it won the gold medal. In 2011 botanists at Kew Gardens in London described the plant as a distinct, new species and named it in honor of Cantley. Unfortunately, N. robcantleyi is critically endangered in the wild according to the IUCN Red List Criteria. The area where Robert Cantley discovered the pitcher plant has been commercially logged and the plant has not been seen in the wild since. Robert Cantley collected seeds from the two original plants and has since propagated thousands of seedlings in hopes of re-introducing them into the wild.

Pachira aquatica
Common Name: Malabar Chestnut, Money Tree
Family Name: Malvaceae
Native to: Cental and South America

Pachira aquatica is cultivated in Asia for its edible nuts, which grow in a large, woody pod and taste like chestnuts. The common name, money tree, refers to a story of its origin, where a poor man prayed for money, found this “odd” plant, took it home as an omen and made money selling plants grown from its seeds. Small trees can be found in nurseries with braided trunks. Braiding contains the tree’s sprawl and symbolizes locking in luck or money. This tropical wetland tree is native to the swamps of Central and South America.

Pachystachys lutea
Common Name: Lollipop Plant, Golden Shrimp Plant
Family Name: Acanthaceae
Native to: Peru

Pachystachys lutea is a popular landscape plant in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The plant’s long-throated, short-lived white flowers emerge sequentially from overlapping bright yellow bracts. A bract is a modified leaf. Some bracts are brightly colored and serve the function of attracting pollinators. Others protect flowers as they emerge. Bracts are often different from foliage leaves. They may be smaller, larger, or of a different color, shape, or texture.

Philodendron warszewiczii
Family Name: Araceae
Native to: Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua

Philodendron warszewiczii grows on rocky cliffs and steep road banks. The Philodendron warszewiczii is notable for its bipinnate, feathered leaves and swollen trunk. Adventitious roots grow directly off the main truck, this adaptation allows the plant to access more nutrition and water.

Phoenicophorium borsigianum
Common Name: Thief Palm
Family Name: Arecaceae
Native to: Seychelles

Phoenicophorium borsigianum, commonly known as the thief palm, is a unique palm species. The thief palm is endemic (found only in a specific location) to the Seychelles, an archipelago of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa. Unusually, the palm can establish and grow in a wide variety of habitats ranging from wet forests to bare, dry areas withstanding full sunlight and periods of drought. A distinctive feature of the thief palm are the prominent spines located on the stem and leaf bases. The spines are likely a defense against the giant tortoises that roam the islands. 

The epithet of Phoenicophorium borsigianum has an interesting history. The common name, thief palm, is a reference to the theft of one of the first specimens in cultivation at London’s Kew Gardens. The palm later turned up in the private greenhouse of August Borsig, a German industrialist and amateur horticulturist. The scientific name, Phoenicophorium borsigianum, pays homage to this history. The second half of the genus is derived from phorios the Greek root for stolen and the species name is a reference to August Borsig.

Phragmipedium
Common Name: South American Slipper Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Mexico to South America

Plants in the genus Phragmipedium are new world lady slipper orchids, named after their shoe shaped pouches. The pouch is a modified petal, also called a lip. The pouch traps insects, which are forced to escape through a backdoor exit, depositing pollen as they squeeze out, thus pollinating the flower. A distinct trait of “Phrags” is that their flowers bloom sequentially, one after another. Each bloom lasts about two weeks; meanwhile, another bud is developing. The entire flowering season can last from six to eleven months. Depending on the species, the colors can range from green, to a soft mahogany-pink, to a dazzling orange-red.

Platycerium
Common Name: Staghorn Fern
Family Name: Polypodiaceae
Native to: South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Guinea

Platycerium is a genus of about 18 fern species. They are epiphytes that grow on trees. They can be found in the Conservatory growing 2-3 feet wide.  Staghorn ferns have two types of fronds, basal and fertile. The basil fronds are steril and often oval-shaped and help the plant adhere to the tree. The basal fronds also cover the roots to protect against damage, capture rain water, and trap leaf litter that decomposes and provides the plant with nutrients.  The fertile fronds in most Platycerium are shaped like antlers or staghorns (hence the common name). These fertile fronds hold the rust-colored reproductive spores.

Sarracenia
Common Name: North American Pitcher Plants
Family Name: Sarraceniaceae
Native to: Southeastern United States to Southern Canada

Sarracenia is a genus comprising of about 10 species of North American pitcher plants. Like the more famous Venus flytrap, these plants are carnivorous. But unlike the fly trap, which moves to trap its prey, the Sarracenia has a passive trap. The plant’s leaves have evolved into a funnel-shaped pitcher. Insects are attracted by a nectar-like secretion on the lip of pitcher, as well as a combination of color and scent. Slippery footing at the pitchers’ rim causes the insect to fall in. Once inside, tiny downward-facing hairs make it nearly impossible for an insect to crawl back out, and liquids at the bottom of the pitcher make tiny wings too wet to fly.

Sarracenia are often found in hot, sunny bogs of Texas and the east coast of the United States. Bog soil is acidic and lacks nutrients so digested insects serve as an important source of nourishment for the plants. When blooming, the Sarracinia’s dramatic umbrella-like flowers are usually on long stems well above the pitcher, to avoid trapping potential pollinators.

Tecomanthe dendrophila
Common Name: New Guinea Trumpet Vine
Family Name: Bignoniaceae
Native to: New Guinea  

Tecomanthe dendrophila is a member of the Bignoniaceae plant family; a family largely composed of climbing, tropical plants. Tecomanthe dendrophila is a liana, woody vine, and can grow to 80 feet tall. The flowers are trumpet-shaped and hang in a cluster of blooms. These showy flowers are bi-colored and range from deep rose to pink with a creamy yellow throat.

Thunbergia mysorensis
Common Name: Brick and Butter Vine, Indian Clock Vine
Family Name: Acanthaceae
Native to: India

Thunbergia mysorensis, commonly known as the brick and butter vine, is a woody evergreen vine that is native to tropical southern India. The species name, mysorensis, is a reference to the city of Mysore in southern India. This vigorous vine can grow to 20 feet in length and large yellow and red flowers hang in a pendant flower spike, botanically known as a raceme. The blooms produce copious amounts of nectar that attract sunbirds and hummingbirds. In tropical gardens and greenhouse conservatories, Thunbergia mysorensis is a popular ornamental often climbing and covering arbors and pergolas.

Vanilla
Common Name: Vanilla Orchid
Family Name: Orchidaceae
Native to: Mexico

Throughout the Potted Plants Gallery grows a prized culinary plant, the Vanilla orchid. Vanilla extract is produced from the seed pod of a pollinated Vanilla orchid flower. A single seed pod (actually a fruit) contains thousands of tiny seeds.

There are over 50 species of Vanilla orchids. Most are vine-like and have fleshy leaves and white flowers with a touch of yellow or green. Culinary vanilla is extracted primarily from the Mexican species V. planifolia. Vanilla is the second most expensive spice after saffron because growing the seed pod is labor-intensive. It’s natural pollinator, a species of bee, is not present in many areas where vanilla is grown so the flowers must be hand-pollinated.

Wercklea ferox
Common Name: Spiny Hibiscus, Prickly Umbrella
Family Name: Malvaceae
Native to: Costa Rica

Commonly known as the spiny hibiscus or prickly umbrella, Wercklea ferox is an evergreen shrub native to Costa Rica.  The large leaves can grow up to 2 feet wide and have distinctive red veins. Prickly spines cover the red-veined leaves and stems of this tropical shrub. The striking blooms are red and yellow.

The genus, Wercklea, is named in honor of Carl Werckle (1860-1924), a French naturalist who made important contributions to Costa Rican botany. The species name, ferox, translates to fierce in Latin. Wercklea ferox is a member of the Malvaceae plant family and is a relative of hibiscus, cotton, and cacao.

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Golden Gate Park | 100 John F. Kennedy Drive | San Francisco, CA 94118| 415-831-2090